From Bulbapedia, the community-driven Pokémon encyclopedia.
Devolution (Japanese: 退化 degeneration) is the process of an evolved Pokémon reverting to its previous form. This is not nearly as well-known among the fandom as evolution is, due to devolution being impossible within the games and anime. In most media in which it exists, devolution is not nearly as commonplace as evolution, and is generally brought about mainly through artificial means, such as sprays or genetic engineering.
In the games
While devolution is not possible within the core series games, the notion is referred to by Slowbro's numerous Pokédex entries. Said entries claim that if the Shellder falls off, the Slowbro turns back into a Slowpoke. It is said that if Slowking loses its Shellder, it forgets everything it has learned.
A similar situation applies to Exeggutor, as it is stated in its Pokédex entries that if one of its heads were to fall off, it would become an Exeggcute.
Pokémon Mystery Dungeon
The only Pokémon games in which devolution is possible are games from the Pokémon Mystery Dungeon series games of the Nintendo 3DS.
In Pokémon Mystery Dungeon: Gates to Infinity, the Devolve Orb is a Wonder Orb that devolves all enemies in the room.
In Pokémon Super Mystery Dungeon, the player and their partner evolve and later devolve three times during the game's main story, thanks to the Harmony Scarves they wear.
|| Spoilers end here.
Pokémon Trading Card Game
Pokémon cards can devolve in Pokémon Trading Card Game video games, which contain cards that can cause devolution.
In the anime
In the Pokémon anime, the subject of devolution has rarely been brought up. Misty explicitly states in Electric Shock Showdown that evolution cannot be reversed, effectively confirming the nonexistence of devolution within the anime. This was reconfirmed in A Stealthy Challenge!, where Bonnie asked Frogadier to devolve into Froakie so she could see it evolve again, but Clemont explained that it doesn't work that way.
The only known instance of devolution in the anime occurred when Faba fitted Silvally with a restraining mask, thereby turning it into a Type: Null.
In the manga
Eevee devolving in Pokémon Adventures
In the Pokémon Adventures manga
Before Vee, Red's Eevee, evolved into Espeon, he had been the subject of an experiment by Team Rocket, which allowed him to evolve into any of his three evolutions that were known at the time. He was also able to devolve back into an Eevee and evolve into a different Eeveelution. Although this does mean that devolution is possible in Pokémon Adventures, the artificial means through which this was achieved and the lack of any other instances of devolution suggest that it may not be possible through natural means.
In the Pokémon Horizon manga
Akira's Rockruff has a unique ability to evolve into Lycanroc and then devolve into Rockruff again, thanks to the strange red stone on its neck. It also has the ability to change in between its Midday and Midnight Forms while being evolved.
In the Pokémon Pocket Monsters manga
Unlike any other media, Pokémon are capable of devolving just as easily as they evolve in Pokémon Pocket Monsters. This became especially evident when Red's Clefairy and Pikachu evolve into Clefable and Raichu respectively, then revert to their original forms, as well as when Green's Charmander evolved into Charizard and then turned back into Charmander.
In the TCG
In the TCG, devolution is perfectly possible, albeit not at a player's whim. Devolution must be induced by the effects of an attack, a Poké-Power, or a Trainer card. Examples include Mew's Devolution Beam attack, Flareon's Undevelop Poké-Power, and the Devolution Spray Item. The following is a list of cards that can achieve devolution.