From Bulbapedia, the community-driven Pokémon encyclopedia.
The Time Gears (Japanese: ときのはぐるま Time Gears) are artifacts of great importance in Pokémon Mystery Dungeon: Explorers of Time and Explorers of Darkness and Pokémon Mystery Dungeon: Explorers of Sky.
The Time Gears help keep control of the flow of time in the Pokémon world. Even the most hardened criminals know not to disturb the Time Gears, lest the proper flow of time be disrupted in that general area. However, in the beginning of the events of Explorers of Darkness, Time, and Sky, a mysterious thief starts to steal them over the course of the storyline, causing time in those areas to stand still. All but two Time Gears are guarded by the lake guardians, and all but one Time Gear is guarded in any way.
The thief is found to be Grovyle, who was from the future, and the player eventually brings him to justice. The stolen Time Gears are then returned to their respective areas. However, it is then revealed that Grovyle stole the Time Gears to prevent an even greater catastrophe: the paralysis of the planet, and that Dusknoir, a famous explorer who was presented as a hero at first was the real enemy and a servant of Primal Dialga, the main villain of the first storyline, in the future. Grovyle came back from the future with the player to stop the paralysis of the planet. The frozen time would be only in effect temporarily until the Time Gears were placed in Temporal Tower, Dialga's domain, where the flow of time would be fixed permanently. The player then decides to help Grovyle collect the Time Gears again. The player and their partner go to the guild and tell the guild members the whole story, and that Grovyle should be allowed to take the Time Gears.
When the player and Grovyle go to Treeshroud Forest to take the first Time Gear again, time has already frozen, further proof of Grovyle's story. Acting fast, Grovyle obtains the rest of the Time Gears and the party goes to the Hidden Land, and from there, Temporal Tower. Grovyle throws himself and Dusknoir, their pursuer, into a portal going to the future, while he entrusts the five Time Gears to the player in order to prevent history from repeating itself. Together, the player and partner place the Time Gears in the slots at the top of the tower, after defeating Primal Dialga, and prevent a future of darkness. The story of Grovyle and Dusknoir is then continued in the Special Episode In the Future of Darkness. It is also later revealed that Darkrai was behind the events of this story in the first place.
In the anime
A Time Gear appeared in Pokémon Mystery Dungeon: Explorers of Time & Darkness being stolen by Grovyle.
In Pokémon Mystery Dungeon: Explorers of Sky - Beyond Time & Darkness, Grovyle gave three Time Gears to Team Poképals when he was about to go back to the future.