From Bulbapedia, the community-driven Pokémon encyclopedia.
There have been numerous controversies regarding Pokémon.
Imagery and symbolism
Perceived Nazi imagery
In the TCG
Members of the Jewish community accused Nintendo of using an offensive image in the Japanese version of Koga's Ninja Trick. The image in question, features an omote manji, a left-facing version of the swastika.
Even though the Western world perceives the swastika to be a symbol of the fascist and racist policies of Nazi Germany during the course of World War II, as well as hate, prejudice and white supremacy in general, the swastika has its roots as a symbol of peace and good luck by many cultures. The earliest form of the swastika discovered was one used in Ancient India. It also was found in cultures that had no connection with India, such as Native American and First Nation cultures. It was because of its long and ancient history that Adolf Hitler adopted it as the Nazi Party symbol, as he felt it to be—among other things—a connection to Aryan ancestors who lived in Ancient India.
Since World War II, however, its use has diminished, but it is still commonly used by other cultures who either didn't have any contact with the Nazis or their use of the swastika as a symbol of peace was still stronger than the swastika as a symbol of hate. In India and its neighboring countries, the swastika represent love and mercy, as well as wealth and good fortune. In Asian countries, such as China, Japan and (South) Korea, the swastika can be found on maps to represent Buddhist temples. In all these nations, the swastika can also be found on all kinds of media, businesses, buildings, clothing just as much as any other symbol would. However, it is because of its liberal use that the swastika can create international miscommunications, such as its use on the Japanese version of Koga's Ninja Trick.
In the anime
In All Things Bright and Beautifly!, a Team Rocket fantasy involves Jessie, James, Meowth, and many Team Rocket Grunts raising their hands in a manner somewhat similar to the Hitler salute. This was edited out in the English dub of the anime, with the grunts no longer raising their hands. Despite this, Meowth's arm remains unedited in the dub.
Original Japanese version
In the games
In European releases of Pokémon Diamond and Pearl, the sprite art for Registeel is altered slightly. While in Japanese and English releases, Registeel's arm is extended, non-English European versions use an altered sprite, depicting it with its both of its arms down, presumably due to the original pose's resemblance to the Roman salute, infamously used by (and therefore commonly associated with) the German Nazi Party. In all versions of Pokémon HeartGold, SoulSilver, and Platinum, the revised sprite is used.
International DP Registeel
European DP/Worldwide PtHGSS Registeel
Some fundamentalist Christian groups have accused Pokémon as being linked to Satanism. The following is a summarized and possibly incomplete list of their reasons for this accusation:
- Pokémon are like demons. They are captured and must be called upon to perform tasks.
- Magical talismans (supposedly a reference to Gym Badges) are needed to control them.
- Pokémon evolve. Though this transformation is more akin to metamorphosis in most Pokémon, the theory of evolution is denied entirely by the most fundamentalist creationists, who believe that all things as they are presently were divinely inspired.
- Some Pokémon evolution even requires the use of certain magical stones.
- Many Pokémon have extraordinary paranormal powers, notably Psychic-types. Those with Psychic powers are labeled as having been given these powers by Satan in the Bible itself.
- Many Pokémon embody or practice East Asian spiritual or mystical concepts, being that the franchise originated in Japan. Some Christian groups denounce these as pagan rituals.
- Some claim that if one were to play backwards the Pokérap, "Gotta Catch 'em All!" can be heard as "I love you, Satan".
In response to these claims, in 2000 the Vatican City-based Sat 2000 broadcast public approval of Pokémon, stating that the games did not have "any harmful moral side effects" and was based on "ties of intense friendship".
Claims of Zionist Jewish plot in the Arab and Islamic world
Some outspoken, fundamentalist Muslims claimed that Pokémon is a Jewish conspiracy that is intended to brainwash Muslim children to make them renounce their faith. These same groups claimed that the word "Pokémon" is a phrase that means "I am Jewish", with the claimers and their followers generally unaware of the franchise's Japanese origin. The "Evolution vs. Creationism" conflict was also commonly brought up.
In 2001, the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, who is the highest religious authority in the kingdom, issued a fatwā banning the Pokémon franchise, claiming it encourages gambling and promotes Zionism. High Muslim authorities in Qatar and Egypt then joined the ban. As this happened during the second Intifada, a Jordanian newspaper printed a caricature of Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon sitting in a tank and laughing at an Arab man chasing a Pokémon. This is meant to convey that Arabs are distracted from their conflict with the Israelis by popular franchises, with Pokémon as an example of such "distractions."
Despite the initial banning, which quickly wiped away Pokémon merchandise, especially the card game, from markets in Saudi Arabia, Pokémon video games quickly returned to be sold normally, but under much less demand from local consumers. Some Pokémon merchandise, such as the Expedition Base Set reappeared in certain stores a few years later, but newer sets were never brought. Games from Generation III on seem completely unaffected by the ban.
Artwork of Jynx in her original design
Carole Boston Weatherford, a cultural critic, claimed that Jynx, which had recently appeared in Holiday Hi-Jynx, was a negative racial stereotype of African-Americans. She chiefly compared Jynx to the racist characters in The Story of Little Black Sambo, and further compared Jynx to Mr. Popo of the Dragon Ball franchise, a character who is also potentially offensive in his design.
Weatherford's complaint caused many repercussions in the Pokémon franchise. The sprites of Jynx in the international release of Pokémon Gold, Silver, and Crystal were edited, and EP250 was cut from international airings of the anime. A sequence depicting Jynx in its original design in All Things Bright and Beautifly! was also cut from the dub.
Jynx's design was officially revised by Nintendo to being purple, rather than black, and this change was reflected in later games (beginning with Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire) and the anime (starting in Mean With Envy). Jynx has also been recolored in VIZ Media's reissues of Pokémon Adventures. Although the manga is colored in black-and-white, Jynx appearing in the manga are recolored as a dark gray rather than a straight black, suggesting that they are purple instead of black. It is also recolored to purple on the back cover of the reissue of Volume 4.
In recent years, some fans of Pokémon have noted that Jynx may be inspired by ganguro, a Japanese fashion where women tan heavily, bleach their hair, and apply large amounts of makeup, instead of a black stereotype. This theory is mainly based on Jynx's long, straight, blonde hair, a common attribute of ganguro fashion.
Other people, however, think Jynx is based on a Nordic princess. This is because there are legends saying things like due to the blistering cold, a princess's skin turned black. They argue that Jynx's hair looks more like royalty than an African stereotype. They also say that being based on a Viking could reason why they are Ice type. This is further expressed by Jynx sharing traits with the iconic opera singing "Fat Lady," who is pop-culturally portrayed dressed as the valkyrie Brünnhilde.
International Crystal Jynx
Lenora's apron removal as seen in the anime
Nacrene City Gym Leader Lenora also brought up concerns of racism. While no complaints were filed, actions were taken to alter her clothing. Lenora's original artwork, as well as her in game sprites, depict her wearing a large apron. Concerns arose that people outside of Japan would allude Lenora to the Mammy archetype. Similar to Lenora, the mammy is a dark skin-toned woman who wears a handkerchief on her head and an apron. Because of the similarity, Lenora's artwork was changed, from her wearing the apron to her having it slung over her shoulder like a cape. Despite this, Lenora's in-game sprites were not altered in the international release of Black and White, nor was any attempt made to re-alter the sprites for Pokémon Black 2 and White 2.
In the original version of A Night in the Nacrene City Museum!, Lenora was depicted wearing her apron. When the English dub aired, her apron was removed completely.
In Pokémon Adventures, Lenora is depicted with the apron over her shoulder in the first panel she appears in and she is not shown with it after that. In Pocket Monsters BW, she is not depicted with an apron at all.
In the past, several animal rights groups have tried to ban Pokémon, claiming that Pokémon battles closely resemble cockfights. This aspect of the controversy was actually touched upon in Pokémon Black and White.
Upon the release of Pokémon Black and White Versions 2, PETA released a mock game named "Pokémon Black and Blue". In the game, the player controls the Pokémon to attack the opposing human. PETA claims that the way the Pokémon are "stuffed" into the Poké Ball is similar to how circus elephants are chained inside railroad carts. Nintendo responded to this by simply stating, “Nintendo and The Pokémon Company take the inappropriate use of our products and intellectual property seriously.” Around the release of Pokémon X and Y, PETA released another mock game called "Pokémon Red, White, and Blue" that features Nintendo's "association" with McDonald's and also makes fun of the frequent release of sister games.
In Pokémon X and Y, the in-game description for the Poké Ball now includes the words "...comfortably encapsulating its target.", possibly in response to PETA's aforementioned comment.
Various lawsuits have been filed against Nintendo and Game Freak regarding Pokémon or Pokémon characters.
In November 2000, Uri Geller, a man claiming to be a psychic who is to be able to bend spoons with psychic powers, tried to sue Nintendo for £60 million (the equivalent of US $100 million), claiming that Kadabra, known as Yungerer in Japan, was an unauthorized parody of himself. Besides Kadabra's use of bent spoons to enhance its psychic powers, the katakana for its name, ユンゲラー, is visually similar to the transliteration of his own name into Japanese (ユリゲラー).
He also claimed that Kadabra was anti-Semitic in nature, with the star on its forehead and lightning bolts resembling the logo of the Nazi SS. He is quoted as saying: "Nintendo turned me into an evil, occult Pokémon character. Nintendo stole my identity by using my name and my signature image."
Geller lost the lawsuit. Despite this, there has not been a Kadabra card in the Trading Card Game since Skyridge in 2003 and Kadabra has not appeared in the Pokémon anime since Fear Factor Phony, perhaps as a precaution against Geller's history of lawsuits. Abra and Alakazam cards have continued to be printed, despite the fact that this makes it impossible to play Alakazam cards in matches that prevent the use of older cards without a card that specifically allows evolved Pokémon to be played. However, the only Abra card released after Skyridge, in Mysterious Treasures, has an attack that allows it to evolve directly into Alakazam, skipping the Kadabra stage.
A parents' group attempted to sue manufacturers of collectible cards, including Nintendo and Wizards of the Coast, claiming that the cards' collectible nature and the random distribution of the cards in packs constitutes illegal gambling.
European releases of Pokémon Platinum replace the slot machines in Veilstone City's Game Corner from Pokémon Diamond and Pearl with non-playable game machines in fear that they would encourage younger players to gamble. This change has been greatly criticized by European players, who felt that it completely defeated the purpose and concept of the Game Corner.
All non-Japanese releases of Pokémon HeartGold and SoulSilver replace the slot machines of the two Game Corners in Goldenrod City and Celadon City with a new game called Voltorb Flip. In this game, similar to Minesweeper, coins are not wagered against a win or a loss, but instead given out for completing a level. While many find the game to be entertaining, unlike the case with the European release of Pokémon Platinum, the change in the Game Corners' interior design removed the ability of coins to be purchased in bulk, making playing Voltorb Flip the only possible way to get coins. Additionally, due to the change, the location of the Coin Case was changed in the international versions, and is now given directly by the man in charge of the Game Corner.
All games since Pokémon Black and White Versions feature no Game Corner at all. Furthermore, this is referenced in Pokémon Omega Ruby and Alpha Sapphire, which shows that the Mauville Game Corner has been closed down.
In 1999, as a promotion for Mewtwo Strikes Back, Burger King released a series of promotional toys in handheld Poké Balls with their Kids' Meals. After their daughter suffocated because she had covered her mouth and nose with half of the Poké Ball, two parents set up a website named "Pokémon Kills".
In response to this, Burger King recalled the Poké Balls and exchanged them for food for a limited amount of time.
Although 4Kids and TAJ allow for some cartoon violence in the anime, the following episodes contain scenes that were deemed to be "too violent", and thus were cut from the English broadcast:
- ↑ NYPost.com: POKEMON EARNS PAPAL BLESSING (archive)